Quran's Tafhim ( explanation)

*23) This means the "Muslims" of every age who believed in the Prophets of Allah and His Books upto the time of Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him): they included both the sincere Muslims and the wavering Muslims.
*24) See E.N. 72 of Chapter IV (An-Nisa').
*25) "Sabaeans": In ancient times two sects were known by this title:
(1) The followers of Prophet John, who were found in upper Iraq in large numbers and practised baptism.
(2) The worshippers of stars, who ascribed their creed to Prophets Shith and Idris (peace be upon them) and believed that the elements were governed by the planets and the planets by the angels. Their centre was at Harran with branches spread all over Iraq. These people have been well known for their knowledge of philosophy and science and their achievements in medicine.
Probably here the first sect is referred to, because the second sect was not known by this name at the time the Qur'an was revealed.
*26) See E. N. 36 of Chapter V (AI-Ma'idah).
*27) That is, the fire-worshippers of Iran, who believed in two gods -one of light and the other of darknesses-and regarded themselves as the followers of Zoroaster. Their creed and morals were so corrupted by Mazdak that a brother could easily enter into matrimony with his sister.
*28) That is, "The mushriks of Arabia and of other countries, who had no special name like those mentioned above."
*29) That is, "Allah will pass His judgment on the Day of Resurrection in regard to all the differences and disputes which take place between different people and different religions and will decide which of them was right and which was wrong. "
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